New Forms of Production

The paper session “New Form of Production” discussed the features and effects of a hybrid economy.

Anne Marie Schleiner from ASCA/University of Amsterdam discussed the role of cross-overs of play material between game industry and player & art spheres. A famous example is the “Counterstrike-Mod” that has become even more popular than the original game. But also artists modify existing games for their purposes like Jodi and Joan Leandre. However, the web-games also demonstrate the extremes of immaterial labour, like the Chinese Gold Farming, where players from developed countries save time by paying real money to acquire virtual game currencies.

Hybrid Innovation Ecology

Peter Troxler from Square One analyzed in his paper how the peer-production of physical goods in the case of Fab Lab might serve as a role model for “hybrid innovation ecology“. Most Fab Labs still rely on subsidies to survive. For them, grass-roots innovation is important, since they do not want to be a business. But there are some examples, how the Fab Lab ideas lead to commercial viable products. For example the Fab Lab Utrecht developed a walking robot, and the design was posted on the web. A company liked the idea and gave the inventors money so they can produce the robot. The inventors never thought of making money with the product in the first place. Troxler gives another example, which comes close to the „hybrid innovation ecology“: In Indonesia, many limbs are amputated due to accidents, but there is hardly health care available. The Fab Lab Amsterdam helped to produce a $50 leg. The challenge is how to transfer the model of the Fab Lab to other spheres.

The economics of the Digital Era

Ignacio de Castro Arribas from Spain analysed the economics of peer-production and prosumption on an individual and market level. He observes the networking effects between two markets. For example a company gives away software for free to stimulate demand in the market where the company offers services. He also pointed out that successful peer production (like in the case of Wikipedia) creates high barriers of entry for other players.

But what are the incentives for users to participate in peer production? Arribas highlights three motives:

1) Indirect appropriation: the hope of future earning and signalling effects (exposure). Furthermore there are Mincerian effects, e.g.: I participate in Linux so IBM might hire me.

2) Hedonic rewards: Ego boosting and the pleasure of consumption.

3) Monetary rewards: e.g.: Chance to win a cash prize in web-based contest.

Network effects play a crucial role to amplify the incentives: The more passive users a platform has, the merrier the platform is attractive to active users. The signalling effects and ego-boosting effects for active participants are higher if they know they have a big audience.

Arribes thinks that a core feature of the Digital Era is Hybrid production. This mode of production combines the sphere of market production, which is based on prices and property and non-market production, which not based prices, but other (social) values matter. The non-market side provides input for the market side.

The right spot

Anas Tawileh from the Cardiff University rounded up the presentations with thoughts about the ecosystem the commons create. A key question for him: What is the right spot for business models to leverage the positive effects of the commons?

Der Beitrag wurde am Friday, den 8. October 2010 um 14:17 Uhr von Thomas Gegenhuber veröffentlicht und wurde unter Allgemein abgelegt. Sie können die Kommentare zu diesem Eintrag durch den RSS 2.0 Feed verfolgen. Sie können einen Kommentar schreiben, oder einen Trackback auf Ihrer Seite einrichten.

Eine Reaktion zu “New Forms of Production”

  1. StefanMz

    Interessanter Bericht hier

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